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Table 2 Applications and capital costs of different screening technologies by technique or equipment

From: Substandard and falsified medicine screening technologies

Screening Technology Techniques and Notable Equipment Applicationa Price Range (USD)b
I II III IV V VI
Infrared spectroscopy NA + NA +N NA NA $25,000 - $70,000
Near infrared spectroscopy NA + NA +N NA NA $7000 - $60,000
Raman spectrometry NA + NA +N NA NA $18,000 - $60,000
X-ray diffraction spectroscopy NA + L NA NA NA NA information not obtained
X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy NA + + L + L + L NA $30,000 - $60,000
Ion mobility spectrometry NA + + +L +L NA $25,000 - $60,000
CD5 – multi-spectral imaging + NA NA NA NA NA Not commercially available
Counterfeit Drug Identifier – multi-wavelength absorption NA + NA NA NA NA $100 but not commercially available
GPHF Minilab™ – chromatography and disintegration NA + + L + L NA + $4500 - $10,000
Paper analytical device – chromatography and wet chemistry NA + NA + L NA NA $1 per test card
PharmaChk – chemiluminescence NA NA NA +N NA NA Not commercially available
Speedy Breedy – respirometry (sterility) NA NA + L NA +N NA $4500 - $5000
  1. (+) Intended application
  2. (+N) Intended but non-routine application
  3. (+L) Intended application with significant limitations e.g., able to analyze a limited number of drug substances
  4. (NA) Not an intended application
  5. aAs per proposed USP General Chapter < 1850>
  6. bRanges reflect price quotes obtained from instrument vendors and information from the literature.