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Table 1 Kawakita parameters (Pk and a) and tablet hardness values measured upon compression of non-compacted (BC) and compacted (AC) drug powders using the Gamlen Tablet Press. Bulk density was measured for BC and AC powders prior to compression

From: Understanding the implication of Kawakita model parameters using in-die force-displacement curve analysis for compacted and non-compacted API powders

Drug Pk, BC Pk, AC % Change in Pk a, BC a, AC % Change in a Hardness, N, BC Hardness, N, AC Bulk density, g/mL, BC Bulk density, g/mL, AC
Mebeverine 4.78±0.042 10.02±0.13 + 109.6 0.771±0.01 0.561±0.01 − 27.2 29.1±2 58±4 0.273±0.05 0.517±0.06
Metronidazole 5.608±0.057 8.687±0.09 +54.9 0.504±0.06 0.492±0.01 − 2.4 10±3 10±2 0.681±0.07 0.685±0.08
Norfloxacin 15.584±0.011 14.031±0.32 − 9.96 0.581±0.03 0.515±0.04 − 11.4 64.8±5 52.15±3 0.584±0.03 0.658±0.07
Metformin 15.047±0.012 8.061±0.13 − 46.42 0.629±0.01 0.546±0.01 − 13.2 51±3 43±2 0.509±0.04 0.542±0.04
Ciprofloxacin 4.842±0.018 9.566±0.20 +97.56 0.838±0.04 0.569±0.03 − 32.1 47.5±5 145±4 0.239±0.06 0.559±0.03
Secnidazole 2.476±0.032 6.182±0.08 +123.0 0.665±0.02 0.532±0.02 − 20.0 37±3 25.7±2 0.428±0.07 0.617±0.04
  1. Pk, a, hardness, and bulk density data are shown as a mean of 3 repetitions, 3 repetitions, 10 tablets, and 5 repetitions, respectively, ± the standard deviation
  2. BC before compaction, AC after compaction